At about the same time, St. Petersburg saw the publication of two works by V. Olsufyev, fencing instructor of the officers' cavalry school of the Mounted Grenadier Regiment, entitled Cutting and Fencing and Guidelines for Teaching the Handling of Weapons in our Cavalry. In 1909, V. Zhytkov, fencing teacher at the Alekseyevskoye Military School, published his Handbook on Dueling with the Epee and Spadroon and the Rule of Dueling with Cold Steel with 15 photographs.
The year 1913 saw the publication of the book by K. Ternan Foil Fencing, which offered a detailed description of the French school techniques and tactics and his 25 years of experience of teaching fencing in Russia.
The appearance of such a large number of fencing textbooks, handbooks, and manuals facilitated the development of this sport. During the 20th century, two trends in the development of fencing became discernible in Russia: applied fencing - bayonet and saber fencing for officers and soldiers, and amateur sport fencing with foils, epees, and spadroons. Military courses fencing instructors started to open in Russia: in 1908 in Petersburg and in 1910 in Moscow. Graduates of such courses went on to become teach fencing all across Russia, which caused fencing to develop on a nationwide scale.